JAVA/J2EE (JSP, Struts, Hibernate, Servlets) Development

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JAVA/J2EE (JSP, Struts, Hibernate, Servlets) DevelopmentShort for Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition, J2EE is a platform-independent, Java-centric environment from Sun for developing, building and deploying Web-based enterprise applications online. The J2EE platform consists of a set of services, APIs, and protocols that provide the functionality for developing multitiered, Web-based applications.
Some of the key features and services of J2EE:

  • At the client tier, J2EE supports pure HTML, as well as Java applets or applications. It relies on Java Server Pages and servlet code to create HTML or other formatted data for the client
  • Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs) provide another layer where the platform’s logic is stored. An EJB server provides functions such as threading, concurrency, security and memory management. These services are transparent to the author
  • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), which is the Java equivalent to ODBC, is the standard interface for Java databases
  • The Java servlet API enhances consistency for developers without requiring a graphical user interface

Apache Struts is an open source Java framework used for building web applications based on the servlet and JavaServer Pages (JSP) technologies.
Apache Struts is a free open-source framework for creating Java web applications.
Web applications differ from conventional websites in that web applications can create a dynamic response. Many websites deliver only static pages. A web application can interact with databases and business logic engines to customize a response.
Web applications based on JavaServer Pages sometimes commingle database code, page design code, and control flow code. In practice, we find that unless these concerns are separated, larger applications become difficult to maintain.
One way to separate concerns in a software application is to use a Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. The Model represents the business or database code, the View represents the page design code, and the Controller represents the navigational code. The Struts framework is designed to help developers create web applications that utilize a MVC architecture.

The framework provides three key components:

  • A “request” handler provided by the application developer that is mapped to a standard URI
  • A “response” handler that transfers control to another resource which completes the response
  • A tag library that helps developers create interactive form-based applications with server pages

The framework’s architecture and tags are buzzword compliant. Struts works well with conventional REST applications and with nouveau technologies like SOAP and AJAX.

Java Server Page (JSP) is a technology for controlling the content or appearance of Web pages through the use of Servlet s, small programs that are specified in the Web page and run on the Web server to modify the Web page before it is sent to the user who requested it. Sun Microsystems, the developer of Java, also refers to the JSP technology as the Servlet application program interface (API). JSP is comparable to Microsoft’s Active Server Page (ASP ) technology. Whereas a Java Server Page calls a Java program that is executed by the Web server, an Active Server Page contains a script that is interpreted by a script interpreter (such as VBScript or JScript) before the page is sent to the user.

An HTML page that contains a link to a Java servlet is sometimes given the file name suffix of .JSP.
JSP pages use XML tags and scriptlets written in the Java programming language to encapsulate the logic that generates the content for the page. It passes any formatting (HTML or XML) tags directly back to the response page. In this way, JSP pages separate the page logic from its design and display.

Hibernate is a free, open source Java package that makes it easy to work with relational databases. Hibernate makes it seem as if your database contains plain Java objects like you use every day, without having to worry about how to get them out of (or back into) mysterious database tables. It liberates you to focus on the objects and features of your application, without having to worry about how to store them or find them later.
Hibernate is an object-relational mapping (ORM) solution for the Java language: it provides an easy to use framework for mapping an object-oriented domain model to a traditional relational database. Its purpose is to relieve the developer from a significant amount of common data persistence-related programming tasks.
Hibernate is free as open source software that is distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License.
Hibernate adapts to the developer’s development process, whether starting from scratch or from a existing database.
Hibernate primary feature is mapping from Java classes to database tables (and from Java data types to SQL data types) and also provides data query and retrieval facilities. Hibernate generates the SQL calls and relieves the developer from manual result set handling and object conversion, keeping the application portable to all SQL databases, with database portability delivered at very little performance overhead.
Hibernate provides transparent persistence for “Plain Old Java Objects”; the only strict requirement for a persistent class is a no-argument constructor, not compulsorily public. (Proper behavior in some applications also requires special attention to the equals() and hashCode() methods.)
Hibernate can be used both in standalone Java applications and in Java EE applications using servlets or EJB session beans.

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